The post-fossil age not only includes the energy transition, but also the switch from fossil-based materials to a renewable resource base. Biomass can play an essential role here. In our already heavily used or partially overused “resource garden”, we are going to face new conflicts of land use, for instance not only food versus fuel, but also food versus fibre. At the same time new economic opportunities are opening up, especially for rural areas. What potentials, opportunities and challenges the bio-economy might hold for spatial, environment and societal development will be discussed under this topic.